Parlor Press and its authors make a difference that positively affects people and changes contexts everywhere. In our ongoing effort to measure this impact on people, our world, and (of course) scholarly and creative writing, we've collected selections from the latest writing about Parlor Press authors, books, events, awards, presentations and readings, and more. Each of these has appeared on our front page for a time. If you want to nominate a new selection, please let us know. Contact us and you may be surprised with a free book!

Rational Rhetoric wins Olson Award

Cover of Rational RhetoricDavid J. Tietge's Rational Rhetoric: The Role of Science in Popular Discourse has been named the winner of JAC's Gary A. Olson Award for most outstanding book in rhetorical and cultural theory. -- 26 May 2010.

Series Editor Alan Gross Wins Awards

Alan Gross, editor of the Rhetoric of Science and Technology series, has been named the 2009 Distinguished Scholar of the Rhetoric and Communication Theory Division of the National Communication Association and won the 2009 Best Article Award from the Visual Communication Division for his essay "Darwin’s Diagram: Scientific Visions and Scientific Visuals" in Ways of Seeing, Ways of Speaking: The Integration of Rhetoric and Vision in Constructing the Real, edited by Kristie S. Fleckenstein, Sue Hum, and Linda T. Calendrillo (Parlor Press, 2008).

Review of Molly Bendall's Under the Quick

Molly Bendall's Under the Quick has been reviewed by Carol Muske-Dukes (Poet Laureate of California) in The Huffington Post. Here's an excerpt:

There's an inscrutable, willowy, linguistic élan to the poems -- they come from the world below consciousness -- language released at pure Ophelia-speed from formality and sequence -- their surefootedness and grace is something remarkable.
Read more at:

Free Verse Editions Press Release 2009

Parlor Press is pleased to announce the 2008 selections for its Free Verse Editions series, to be published in Fall, 2009.

Free Verse Editions Press Release 2009

The New Measure Poetry Prize 2020

Parlor Press's poetry series, Free Verse Editions, is pleased to announce the eleventh annual New Measure Poetry Prize, which will carry a cash award of $1,000 and publication of an original, unpublished manuscript of poems. Up to four other manuscripts may be accepted for publication by Free Verse Editions editors. Submit a manuscript of at least 54 pages with a $28 entry fee between March 1 and June 1, 2020. The window for the 2020 competition will open on 1 March 2020. The judge for this year's competition is Jon Thompson.

Click on this Submit button to visit the New Measure Poetry Prize submission interface at Submittable on or after March 1 and no later than June 1:

The New Measure Poetry Prize Winners

2019: Parallel Resting Places by Laura Wetherington [selected by Peter Gizzi]
2018: Empire by Tracy Zeman [selected by Jon Thompson]
2017: Not into the Blossoms and Not into the Air by Elizabeth Jacobson [selected by Marianne Boruch]
2016: The Miraculous Courageous by Josh Booton [selected by Jon Thompson]
2015: This History That Just Happened by Hannah Craig [selected by Yusef Komunyakaa]
2014: Spool by Matthew Cooperman [selected by Jon Thompson]
2013: No Shape Bends the River So Long by Monica Berlin and Beth Marzoni [Selected by Carolyn Forché]
2012: Dismantling the Angel by Eric Pankey [selected by Jon Thompson]
2011: The Canticle of the Night Path by Jennifer Atkinson [selected by Susan Stewart]
2010: Country Album by James Capozzi [selected by Jon Thompson]
2009:  13 Ways of Happily by Emily Carr [selected by Cole Swensen]

Other manuscripts not selected for the New Measure Poetry Prize may still be eligible for publication by Free Verse Editions. Friends and former students of the judge are not eligible for the prize but may submit for publication to Free Verse Editions (please indicate whether the submission is for the prize or for publication only). Each manuscript should be word processed, paginated, and contain a list of acknowledgments for published or forthcoming poems. The title page should include the name of the author, a postal address, telephone number, and email address. No feedback on submitted manuscripts can be offered. The recipient of the New Measure Poetry Prize will be announced in December each year.

For more information about Free Verse Editions, visit the series page.

Free Verse Editions logo

Parlor Press at CCCC in San Francisco

Parlor Press will be in Booth 10 in the exhibit area at CCCC in the San Francisco Hilton. Stop by to meet authors and editors and to check out some great deals!

New Realities for Academic Presses in Trying Economic Times

Presented at the Research Network Forum, Conference on College Composition and Communication San Francisco, March 11, 2009


Scholarly presses may be in peril due to diminishing markets, tight budgets, and over-reliance on the monograph as the signifier of scholar achievement, but individuals and organizations in rhetoric and composition can take specific action to ensure that scholarly presses not only survive momentary crises but also thrive in the years ahead. In turn, presses themselves also need to adapt to the changing needs of the multiple constituencies they serve and the new technologies that enable the democratization of peer review, production, distribution, and delivery.

I’m grateful to Brad Lucas, editor of Composition Studies, and Risa Gorelick—long-time supporter and backbone of these Research Network Forums, for inviting me to say a few words to you today in this, a living example of what Kenneth Burke may have had in mind when he spoke of the unending conversation of history into which we are borne.  Imagine you enter a parlor, he wrote. You’ve come late. People are having a heated discussion about this and that. However, everyone arrives as you do, so no one is qualified to retrace all the steps that have come before. You listen for a while, then you put in your oar. People come to your defense or align themselves against you (The Philosophy of Literary Form 110-11).

With that, let me jump right in to the fray.

About Parlor Press

Parlor Press is an independent publisher and distributor of scholarly and trade books in print and digital formats. It was founded in 2002 to address the need for an alternative scholarly, academic press attentive to emergent ideas and forms while maintaining the highest possible standards of quality, credibility, and integrity. Our primary and simple goal is to publish outstanding writing in a variety of subjects and thus to disseminate knowledge about writing and rhetoric as widely as possible and to ensure that this educational mission is met with style and grace. 

As I hope some of you still know, I am a Professor of English at Purdue in my day job, with a specialization in rhetoric and composition, like so many of you. That means that Parlor Press’s goals have naturally been closely aligned with my own interests as a teacher and researcher. I think, like many of you probably do also, that people everywhere ought to know what we know (that it’s rhetoric all the way down, for instance!) and that students can indeed be taught to write well. You may not have known before, but I hope you do know also that Parlor Press gets its name from that Burkeian parlor I mentioned at the start. This parlor—and Parlor Press, I hope—is a place where interesting and smart discussions come to the fore, where people speak (parler means “to speak,” after all) and listen, where the dialogue and debate—the parliamentary—are in play. In the end, this is what all of our university presses want more than anything. It is easy to be lulled into thinking that they want more than anything to sell books and make money so that they can sell even more books. On the contrary, the ideal of most university presses is to disseminate knowledge, with uncompromising concern for quality and currency. Only secondarily—and in more recent times—has it become necessary for presses to worry about the pedigrees of authors and the marketability of books (the other kind of currency). As John B. Thompson points out in his encyclopedic Books in the Digital Age, the golden age of university press publishing may have ended in the mid-1970s.

Since then, most academic presses have had to pay closer attention to the bottom line as they fight against budget cuts and reallocations, or—as our session today puts it—“trying economic times.” We have to pay especially close attention now because, I’m afraid, the situation for many presses may be much more dire than many realize. When I was the editor of the Rhetorical Philosophy and Theory book series with SIU Press, I witnessed sales to libraries drop precipitously. In the late 1990s, you could count on 500 to 750 or more copies sold to libraries right out of the gate. That average dropped to 100 or so almost overnight, due in part to the rise of the journal conglomerates, ridiculous price gouging, and the attendant strain on library budgets. There are a number of other financial threats aside from dwindling sales, such as the outrageously high cost of exhibiting books and journals at conferences like this one.  In some cases, our own organizations are complicit. I receive dozens of invitations each year to buy table space at even small conferences for hundreds, even thousands of dollars.

Our tough economic times have exacerbated this downward trend, which I believe will continue to threaten all of our presses in the years ahead. As this situation unfolds, the pressure on young scholars to publish books  continues to mount, in spite of MLA’s efforts to expose the crisis in scholarly publishing and to reject the monograph as the gold standard for promotion. At the same time, as our numbers increase and academic fields splinter into countless subspecialties, fewer and fewer people have time to read the major books published in their field. John Thompson calls this the “twigging” effect (177).  He also cites the troubling practice of tenure committees to abdicate their responsibilities to evaluate scholarship themselves and grant it to the presses without question, often merely on the basis of reputation or, more indirectly, the success of the university’s football team. No one would admit that, of course, but if you knew how many times I have answered questions about Parlor Press’s pedigree, you might be surprised. (Thankfully, almost a dozen authors have earned tenure primarily on the basis of their Parlor Press books, which is gratifying.)

What Now?

If all this sounds dour, I apologize. I’m actually much more optimistic—even excited—about the future of scholarly publishing in rhet/comp than this sounds. Why else would I start Parlor Press right at the time when most would say “bad idea, Dave.” I have a great and very busy day job at Purdue, so I certainly didn’t need more work.

Some of you may not know that Parlor Press is independent and not explicitly tied to any university, although we do have many ongoing collaborative projects with universities around the world. The Press is managed entirely by scholars and specialists in their respective fields, presently covering fourteen book series. The series editors and I manage everything from initial peer review through production, distribution, and marketing. We have no staff and no outside funding sources (not even the salary from my day job). It is all built on the sweat equity of enormously generous and wise series editors who believe with me that we can make a difference and that, if left to our own devices and free of all bureaucratic machinery, we might just find a way out of this mess.

People have asked me a lot recently how Parlor Press is doing during this recession. Well, the good news is that our funding hasn’t been cut or threatened, if only because we have none to begin with (the glass is half full, I guess). And there really isn’t any bad news at all. Sales of our books have risen steadily—from almost none to a number respectable enough to keep everything running smoothly and to maintain, as they say, our growth mode. In only six and a half years, we have published 70 books and can now count more than 300 Parlor Press authors. There are another 75 books under contract. This year, we will publish 20 or more books, 75 percent of which will be in our field. We have just launched two new series and have plans for growth into new areas, such as multimedia writing and other hybrid forms of print, visual, aural, and haptic media that will take advantage of new digital printing, publishing, and dissemination technologies. We have also made certain that our peer review process is rigorous and that development is collaborative. Publication decisions are made by peers in the field and no one else.

Parlor Press is a phenomenon made possible by what Chris Anderson in The Long Tail called the “democratization of production.” It is also much easier to innovate when you’ve gone rogue. We have leveraged new digital printing and publishing technologies while also developing a sustainable model for managing all aspects of scholarly publishing efficiently and productively. (People ask me about sustainability all the time, but we’re in year seven now, which makes me wonder what the threshold for sustainability might be.) The Parlor Press model takes advantage of, among other things, digital printing technologies (such as print-on-demand) and powerful communication technologies like Drupal for collaboration, content management, and production in a network of distributed responsibility. Scholars, organizations, and institutions with a clear stake in creative and scholarly research have managed to pool limited resources. We are in rhet/comp, after all. We’re used to building grand designs from nothing but hard work.

What This Freedom Makes Possible

I’d like to mention a few examples of what this freedom makes possible. In a publishing partnership with Mike Palmquist and the WAC Clearinghouse at Colorado State University—we created the first open-access book publishing project in our field (or any, perhaps) to offer free ebooks with a print option, the Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition series edited by CCCC program chair Charles Bazerman.  Since then, Parlor Press has published a number of Creative Commons -licensed books in electronic and print formats, including the first book in rhetoric and composition ever published under such a license, John Logie’s Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion. Mike and I are now working on the new Perspectives on Writing series that will also publish books under a CC license with a print option. The print versions of these “free” books have sold every bit as well as our print-only books, if not better. Finally, some of you may have noticed the recent announcement for Writing Spaces: Readings for Writers, a series created by Charlie Lowe and Pavel Zemliansky that will includes CC-licensed books jointly published by Parlor Press and the WAC Clearinghouse. (See

What You Can Do

I want to conclude with a list of some things you can do to help us ensure that scholarly publishing in rhetoric and composition thrives. Here are some steps that I’ve cobbled together from experience, friends, and fellow publishers, people like Lisa Bayer (Marketing Director, University of Illinois Press), Karl Kageff (Editor-in-Chief, Southern Illinois University Press), and Jonathan Haupt (Assistant Director for Sales and Marketing, University of South Carolina Press). (I am proud to say that all of these fine people are former students of mine from SIU-Carbondale and are scholars in their own right in rhetoric and composition.)

  1. Take a little bit of time to learn about the scholarly presses in your field and especially the ones who publish in your specialty. Visit their websites and meet the publisher and editors at conferences like these. Learn what they do. Subscribe to their RSS feeds.  Your knowledge will spread to others.
  2. Read the work of your colleagues, either by buying their books or asking your library to acquire them.
  3. Encourage your associations and libraries to partner with scholarly presses  (rather than only mega-presses and journal conglomerates) when publishing journals and books and other digital projects. If you’re an editor, ask a scholarly press if they’re interested in helping you publish your journal.
  4. Buy and assign books from scholarly presses in your courses, which means taking the time to find out what they have published lately and what’s coming down the pike.
  5. Support the concept of intellectual property and author rights by discouraging the pirating of copyrighted books.  
  6. If you enjoy a press’s free e-books, buy a printed one now and then, too.
  7. Request that your university / college library purchase specific titles that you believe are important to your field and your research. Ask your library to put the press on its “buy list” with library book buyers so that all new titles get ordered automatically. Forward all flyers from publishers (either that you receive in the mail or that you download from the Web) to library acquisitions and ask them to buy it.
  8. Support university presses in financial and non-financial ways by encouraging your own university to support the combined mission of publishing both to advance knowledge and faculty careers.
  9. Give scholarly books to your friends as gifts.
  10. Become a friend of your favorite university press. Donate money to a UP in tribute of your favorite scholar in the field on the occasion of his/her birthday.
  11. Talk up your favorite or local scholarly press in conversations with colleagues and people in your community.
  12. Do the research needed to find classic or cutting edge work by terrific scholars and/or public intellectuals in your field. You don’t always have to look outside of our field to find excellent writing.  Become a repeat adopter, over years, of one or more scholarly books. As an engaged teacher, you will accomplish two things. You will enliven your students and you will help create the perennial bestsellers that university presses count on to survive.
  13. If you are involved in planning a conference, treat the presses as colleagues in a common pursuit, not as simply “vendors.” (As co-chair of Computers and Writing 2010 at Purdue, I can announce today that all presses wanting to exhibit at the conference will have a free pass and be encouraged to participate in the intellectual play of the conference. (My friends and colleagues Tony Silva and Paul Matsuda have practiced this for a number of years with the annual Second Language Symposium, much to their credit.)
  14. Review scholarly books in journals. If our journals published reviews as frequently as Composition Studies or Rhetoric Review, we’d be set.
  15. Volunteer to help a press in some way with your time. Also, don’t be afraid to barter. Since much of “publishing” is made up of gratis academic labor, you can help a great deal and reap some benefit, if only free books.
  16. Write letters to university administrators or others who might need to know how much you appreciate the work of the press or an editor. Be an independent lobbyist, in other words. Parlor Press has a number of great people who do this for us, and it’s very important (and appreciated, believe me).


I could go on (there’s so much to do!), but let me close by quoting Burke again:  “[T]he discussion is interminable. The hour grows late, and you must depart.  And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress ” (The Philosophy of Literary Form 111).

Works Cited

Anderson, Chris. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion, 2006.

Burke, Kenneth. The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action.  1941. Berkeley: U of California P, 1973.

Thompson, John B.  Books in the Digital Age: The Transformation of Academic and Higher Education Publishing in Britain and the United States. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2005.

Creative Commons License
New Realities for Academic Presses in Trying Economic Times by David Blakesley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.

Parlor Press 2008 - Bazaar

What we've been up to lately . . .

Video Title: "Parlor Press 2008 - Bazaar"
Producer/designer: David Blakesley
Images/duration: 68/3:48
Track: Modern Jazz Samba
Artist: Kevin MacLeod

About Peter Riley's A Map of Faring and Free Verse Editions

Map of Faring Cover"Peter Riley's most recent full-length poetry collection, A Map of Faring, is precisely the sort of project that is helping to distinguish the newly established Free Verse Editions, a joint venture between Free Verse and Parlor Press. With its commitment to featuring translations, combined with an international scope, Free Verse Editions has been consistently proving that the site of contemporary poetry consists not so much of place, but of places and their rich, adjacent terrains." —Word for Word: A Journal of New Writing (Issue 14, Fall 2008).

Read more about A Map of Faring and Free Verse Editions.





New Reviews of Rhetoric and Incommensurability (2008)

From two new reviews of Rhetoric and Incommensurability, edited by Randy Harris:

Harris’s book is especially strong for its reminder to rhetoricians that Kuhn’s notion of the paradigm is not the only source of incommensurability theory. In tracing the history of incommensurability in both Feyerabend and in Kuhn’s evolving theory, Rhetoric and Incommensurability helps to create a productive space of interaction between rhetoric and incommensurability studies more broadly conceived. Although Rhetoric and Incommensurability probably will not be the final word on rhetoric of science and incommensurability studies, it does an excellent job of summing up recent rhetorically based incommensurability scholarship. Finally, it expertly integrates research from the allied humanist and social studies of science while continuously keeping the focus on the rhetorical issues involved.
—S. Scott Graham, in Rhetoric Society Quarterly 38.2 (2008): 233.

Readers of this journal, chiefly interested in incommensurability as a philosophical topic, will be most attracted to Parts 1 and 2 of the book, where the essays are more theoretical. It is on these that this review is focused, particularly Harris’s booklength introduction which impresses me as a real tour de force. The book is worth buying for this essay alone for the revealing way it disentangles themes in the literature on incommensurability, including discussion of rhetoric and ways of dealing with incommensurability.
—Struan Jacobs, in International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22.1 (2008): 100.

Interview with Boyer Rickel on remanence at Christopher Nelson's Poetry Blog

"I think it’s possible for the imagination — and the heart — to make meaningful connections out of more far-ranging material than we often challenge it to do." Read the full Interview with Boyer Rickel on remanence at Christopher Nelson's Poetry Blog. (Oct. 2008).

Read more about remanence and Free Verse Editions.






Free Verse Editions Reading at AWP

Event Information

Host: Parlor Press and Free Verse Editions
Contact: Jon Thompson: or Adam Clay:

Time and Place

Date: Thursday, February 12, 2009
Time: 4:00pm - 5:30pm
Location: The Court in the Columbia College Chicago
Street: 731 South Plymouth Court
City/Town: Chicago, IL

Directions: Three blocks west of the Hilton Chicago. The entrance is on Plymouth Court, and the venue is on the first floor to the right at the top of the stairs.


Dawn-Michelle Baude, a Senior Fulbright Scholar, is the author of several volumes of poetry, including Gaffiot Exquis (1997), The Book of One Hand (1998), The Beirut Poems (2001), Egypt (2002), Through a Membrane / Clouds (2006), and The Flying House (Parlor Press, 2008). She earned an MA from the New College of California, an MFA from Mills College, a Diplôme des etudes approndis in Shakespeare from the Sorbonne, and a PhD in English from the University of Illinois - Chicago. She teaches in the U. S. and in Europe.

Adam Clay is the author of The Wash (Parlor Press, 2006) and A Hotel Lobby at the Edge of the World (Milkweed Editions, forthcoming). He lives in Kalamazoo and co-edits Typo Magazine (

F. Daniel Rzicznek's books include Divination Machine (Free Verse Editions/Parlor Press, forthcoming in 2009), Neck of the World (Utah State University Press, 2007) and Cloud Tablets (Kent State University Press, 2006). He is also coeditor, with Gary L. McDowell, of The Rose Metal Press Field Guide to Prose Poetry: Contemporary Poets in Discussion and Practice, forthcoming from Rose Metal Press in 2010. He currently teaches English composition at Bowling Green State University.

Jon Thompson teaches at North Carolina State University where he edits Free Verse: A Journal of Contemporary Poetry & Poetics and Free Verse Editions, a new poetry series. His first collection of poems was The Book of the Floating World, reissued in an expanded edition in 2007 by Parlor Press. In the spring of 2009, Shearsman Books will publish his book of lyrical essays, After Paradise: Essays on the Fate of American Writing. He recently completed a new volume of poems, tentatively titled Strange Country.

An Interview with Morgan Lucas Schuldt in "First Book Interviews"

"What appeals to me—what has always appealed to me in poetry—are the material conditions of language itself. All the texturizers that work the surface of the poem, from typography down to the aural level of phonemes. Consonance, assonance, rhyme, yes. But also homophones, puns, anagrams, transposition, neologisms, portmanteau—the oddments and extra-intentional sleights-of-hand one can use to complicate words and their meanings. . . ."

Read more at "First Book Interviews" and check out Verge and Free Verse Editions. (Nov. 2008)





Free Verse Editions Press Release for 2008

December 3, 2008
Parlor Press and Free Verse: A Journal of Contemporary Poetry & Poetics

Parlor Press is pleased to announce the new selections for its Free Verse Editions series. The books will be published in the fall of 2008. Contact: Jon Thompson (, Series Editor. or David Blakesley (; 765.409.2649)

FreeVerse Press Release 2008 Publish at Scribd.

"Tom Dvorske on Adam Clay's The Wash" in H_NGM_N: An Online Journal of Poetry and Poetics

Cover of The Wash"Clay . . . revisits romanticism and allows us to experience it in much the same way that I imagine those first readers of Blake, Shelley, and Clare might have experienced their work. And it’s a visit worth making." "Tom Dvorske on Adam Clay's The Wash" in H_NGM_N: An Online Journal of Poetry and Poetics.

Read more about The Wash and Free Verse Editions.






AWP Off-Site Reading: Free Verse Editions/Horseless Press

Friday, Feb. 28, 2014, 5.00 – 6.30pm

Red Velvet Lounge, Rendezvous
2322 2nd Avenue in the Heart of Belltown Seattle

Join Free Verse Editions and Horseless Press poets--Jennifer Atkinson, Molly Bendall, Emily Carr, Adam Clay, Tim Earley, Ger Killeen, Christopher Kondrich, Dawn-Michelle Baude, Eric Pankey, Brittany Perham and Siobhan Scarry—for a sterling set of readings.

Drinks & fine food in plush surroundings!

Announcing the 2019 Free Verse Editions

Series Editor: Jon Thompson
Series Page:

Tracy Zeman, Empire [Winner of the New Measure Poetry Prize]

Tracy Zeman's first full-length collection, Empire, examines the European settlement and ecological devastation of the North American prairie. Her ecology-based serial poems employ collage, borrowed text and fractured narrative to probe the connections of humans to the natural world through the lens of culture, history and personal experience. Zeman uses image, juxtaposition and fragment to tell the story of a savage and intricate landscape, once conquered and now imperiled by forces such as climate change, invasive species and contemporary agricultural and land practices. Empire is a journey through an endangered world where beauty is enshrined and the lost, human and animal, is elegized. 

Tracy Zeman's poems have appeared in Beloit Poetry Journal, Chicago Review, jubilat, TYPO and other journals. She has received a number of residencies, most notably six weeks at the Sitka Center for Art and Ecology on the central Oregon coast. Currently, Zeman is a freelance writer and editor for a number of conservation organizations in the Midwest. She lives outside Detroit, Michigan with her husband and daughter.

Monica Berlin, Elsewhere, That Small

The ordinary becomes urgent in Monica Berlin’s Elsewhere, That Small. Each a landscape, these poems trouble over the cornering-in of any life and trace the modest square mileage of here. Tending to sky and to weather, turning streetscape to inscape and back again, this almanac, this journal of memory, lists toward the local—where even region can be made verb.

Monica Berlin is the author of Nostalgia for a World Where We Can Live (Southern Illinois University Press, 2018), No Shape Bends the River So Long, a collaboration with Beth Marzoni (Parlor Press/Free Verse Editions, 2015), and two chapbooks. A professor of English, Berlin also serves as associate director of the Program in Creative Writing at Knox College, in Galesburg, IL.

Bruce Bond, The Calling

In this series of open-field meditations, embodied in moments both personal and cultural, Bruce Bond’ new book The Calling explores the act of naming as critical to survival—biologically, psychologically, and ethically—and yet no less an obstacle to attention, empathy, and the realization of a functional republic.  To call is to summon, but also to obscure, to occasion, in times of greatest clarity, a keener sense of our connectedness, aloneness, dread, and limitations, of word and world and—as music among strangers teaches—the immensity between them.

Bruce Bond is the author of twenty-two books including, most recently, Immanent Distance: Poetry and the Metaphysics of the Near at Hand (U of MI, 2015), Black Anthem (Tampa Review Prize, U of Tampa, 2016), Gold Bee (Helen C. Smith Award, Crab Orchard Award, SIU Press, 2016), Sacrum (Four Way, 2017), Blackout Starlight: New and Selected Poems 1997-2015 (L.E. Phillabaum Award, LSU, 2017), Rise and Fall of the Lesser Sun Gods (Elixir Book Prize, Elixir Press, 2018), Dear Reader (Free Verse Editions, 2018), and Frankenstein’s Children (Lost Horse, 2018).  Presently he is a Regents Professor of English at University of North Texas.

Kelvin Corcoran, Republic of Song

The sustained lyricism of The Republic of Song moves from abhorrence to its antithesis.  Poem by poem, by turns declarative, tender and oppositional, Kelvin Corcoran pursues what it is that poetry can do in the face of calamitous politics.  The journey explores abiding friendships, the ever present cultural and personal history and the inherent delight of poetry and music.  It arrives at an account of how the blueprint of mythology still plays in our lives and how the deep past and present conditions stand together in a renewed perception of the world.

Kelvin Corcoran lives in Brussels.  He is the author of numerous books of poetry, including most recently Facing West, 2017, the Medicine Unboxed sponsored Not Much To Say Really, 2017, and Article 50, 2018.  The sequence ‘Helen Mania’ was a Poetry Book Society choice and his work has been highly commended by the Forward Prize jury and is the subject of a study edited by Professor Andy Brown, The Poetry Occurs as Song, 2013. He is the editor of an account of the poetry of Lee Harwood in Not the Full Story: Six Interviews with Lee Harwood, 2008

Peter Kline Mirrorforms 

Peter Kline’s Mirrorforms is a daring, experimental collection of poems in which language reaches its most pressurized state. Kline has invented a new poetic form, the mirrorform, which he uses with musical verve to essentialize thought and intensify feeling. The result is that these poems achieve jewel-like precision: each darkly glinting facet reveals the nuances and ambiguities of longing, transgression, and faith.  In one section of the book, agnostic psalms unite the skeptical inquiry of Emily Dickinson with the bodily, passionate petition of John Donne's "Holy Sonnets,” while bringing a highly contemporary perspective to the tradition.  In another section, shadowy, madhouse speakers lay bare their worldview and turbulent inner weather in a series of incisive dramatic monologues. These poems are sharply ironic, darkly funny, and ferocious, and mark out a unique place in contemporary American poetry.

Peter Kline teaches writing at the University of San Francisco and Stanford University.  A former Wallace Stegner Fellow, he has also received residency fellowships from the Amy Clampitt House, James Merrill House, Marble House Project, Artsmith Orcas Island, and Kimmel Harding Nelson Foundation.  His poetry has appeared in PloughsharesFive PointsPoetryTin House, and many other journals, as well as the Best New Poets series, the Verse Daily website, and the Random House anthology, Measure for Measure.  Since 2012 he has directed the San Francisco literary reading series Bazaar Writers Salon.  His first collection of poetry, Deviants, was published by Stephen F. Austin State University Press in 2013.

Eric Pankey, Alias

Kevin Prufer has written, "Eric Pankey peers through the clarifying lens of metaphor and parable to meditate on mystery, human sympathy and the divine." Alias is Eric Pankey's second collection of prose poetry from Free Verse Editions. Like the first, Dismantling the Angel, Pankey continues his investigation of possibilities of the prose poem, an oxymoronic form, which subverts both the conventions of the lyric mode and of habits of prose genres. Roger Lathbury writing about the complexity of Pankey's prose poetry has said that the poems "yearn for completeness, unity, and, if not transcendence, still some condition that would provide what transcendence, or even a hint of transcendence, might offer: fulfillment, harmony, completeness, acceptance, understanding, universal love. With the tact born of honesty (the book never lies; you never feel “manipulated”) these poems refuse every answer they see offered."

Eric Pankey is the author of many collections of poetry. He is Professor of English and the Heritage Chair in Writing at George Mason University where he teaches in the BFA and MFA programs in creative writing.

Announcing the Winner of the New Measure Poetry Prize 2013 & Fall 2014 Free Verse Editions

Monica Berlin & Beth Marzoni, No Shape Bends the River So Long

2013 New Measure Poetry Prize Winner
Selected by Carolyn Forché

No Shape Bends the River So Long meanders through the American landscape in search of site and relic, home and away-from-home. Part meditation on our tenuous position in the natural world and part interrogation of that relationship, these poems map what any place records and what it has erased. Weathered by obsolescence, chance, complacency, and awe, they carve out a new idiom for how we go on. Monica Berlin and Beth Marzoni’s collaborations have been published or are forthcoming in Colorado Review, New Orleans Review, DIAGRAM, Better: Culture & Lit, Meridian, TYPO, Quarterly West, and Vela.

Valerio Magrelli, The Condominium of the Flesh

Translated by Clarissa Botsford

A darkly humorous exploration of the human body and its various functions in poetic prose, Valerio Magrelli’s personal chronicle of clinical experience catalogues a life history of ailments without ever being pathological. Every sensation and malfunction is placed under the subjective microscope of the poet’s eye and examined in excruciating and obsessive detail. This Gray’s Anatomy of the soul leads the reader on an inside-out voyage of discovery, with many surprises on the way. One of Italy’s most celebrated living poets, Valerio Magrelli has also attracted an international following, including luminaries such as Octavio Paz and Joseph Brodsky.

Jesús Losada, The Magnetic Brackets

Translated by Luis Ingelmo and Michael Smith

The Magnetic Brackets . . . is one of the liveliest and truest poetical testaments that a reader can tackle at these times of disbelief, of half-truths, of vacuity and passivity in thought. For this is one more gift from the book: where thought and feeling are perfectly merged.” —Antonio Colinas. Jesús Losada is the author of eleven collections of poetry, among them Huerto cerrado del amor (2nd prize, Premio Adonáis, 1994), La noche del funambulista (Premio Provincia, 1998) and Corazón frontera (Premio “San Juan de la Cruz”, 2010).

Allison Funk, Wonder Rooms

Centuries before modern museums, European wonder rooms housed artifacts and curiosities that mirrored the worlds of their collectors. In them, the New World met Old; superstition tangled with natural science; the monstrous roomed with the commonplace. In Allison Funk’s fifth collection of poems, Wonder Rooms, she is similarly in between: at once in the shelter of her childhood home and the chaos of a madhouse. Like Renaissance collectors before her, she invents a nomenclature to make sense of her world. Allison Funk is the author of four previous books of poems and the recipient of a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts.

L. S. Klatt, Sunshine Wound

The poems in Sunshine Wound leave behind, if not a “beauty mark,” an impasto. The lines are thick with grief but also phantasms that ambush us with a “manufactured light.” It is this dream power that exposes the vulnerable, whether it be the “forgotten” head of George Washington that “looks like it wants to speak” or a “cardboard fawn” on the verge of an “elegant collapse.” Relying on a protean poetic line, the poet improvises a likeness of America that is both genuine and synthetic, reminiscent and alien. L. S. Klatt’s second volume (Cloud of Ink) received the Iowa Poetry Prize.

Sarah Sousa, Split the Crow

Using a supple but precise idiom, Split the Crow chronicles the history of European settlers and the Indigenous Americans they sought to convert, assimilate and eradicate. A range of stories and voices are woven throughout the collection: those of Europeans such as Mary Rowlandson and Roger Williams; a native-owned African slave during the Civil War; and indigenous voices, some clear and attributable, others literal marginalia in European bibles. Sarah Sousa’s poems have appeared or are forthcoming in Apalachee Review, Barn Owl Review, and Spoon River Poetry Review, among others. Her first collection won the Red Mountain Press Prize and will be published in 2014.

2014 New Measure Poetry Prize Competition

Parlor Press’s poetry series, Free Verse Editions, is pleased to announce the sixth annual New Measure Poetry Prize, which will carry a cash award of $1,000 and publication of an original, unpublished manuscript of poems. Jon Thompson will judge this year’s competition. Up to four other manuscripts may be accepted for publication by Free Verse Editions editors. Submit a manuscript and a $28 entry fee between March 1 and June 30, 2014. Visit Free Verse Editions at Submittable for full guidelines: (after March 1)

Jon Thompson, Free Verse Editions Series Editor

David Blakesley, Publisher, Parlor Press; 765.409.2649

Announcing the winner of the New Measure Poetry Prize 2012 & Fall 2013 Free Verse Editions

26 January 2013
Download a Print-Friendly Version

Eric Pankey, Dismantling the Angel

2012 New Measure Poetry Prize Winner
Selected by Jon Thompson

Dismantling the Angel, Eric Pankey’s tenth volume of poetry, collects prose and hybrid poems written over the last two decades. At times god-ridden, the poems enact and subvert the form of the parable, the not-so-good news of the gospel. At times whimsical, the poems question the veracity and stability of the autobiographical I. Always speculative, the poems nag at the threadbare veil between the known and as of yet to-be-known. By turns brooding and bemused, the poet turns his attention to a past that recedes as quickly as it can be approached, to the examples and lessons of art, film, and poetry—Max Ernst, Alfred Hitchcock, and Li Ho—and to the ordinary mess we call today.

Guillevic, Requis, translated by Stella Harvey and Monique Chefdor

The sixteenth of the twenty-five major works of Guillevic published by Gallimard since 1942, Requis represents a pivotal moment in his oeuvre and reaffirms his position as an essential and compelling voice in contemporary poetry. A long poem composed of short, lapidary verse that the poet calls quanta, each in itself a miniature poem, Requis distils familiar themes and motifs of the Guillevician universe within an expanded vision encompassing the outer reaches of space. Within this poetic hurly burly at once totalising and fragmented, arboreal and rhizomatic, cadenced and discontinuous, expansive and condensed, there is a summons to bear witness to the human condition while heeding the injunction of ‘notre toucher/De l’illimité’ that seeks to transgress the boundaries of knowledge, to abolish the dichotomies of presence and absence, motion and stillness, word and silence.

Siobhán Scarry, Pilgrimly

Negotiating a tightrope between narrative and lyric, Siobhán Scarry’s debut collection Pilgrimly keeps vigil over an assortment of wayfarers as they search for “something solid for the mutable world.” In these poems, Orpheus appears on the staircase of a house renovation, Narcissus emerges blessedly free from his lake fixation, and alchemists, nuns, and fortune-tellers all work their attempts at divination. At the heart of these soundings is a desire to find what binds us, and what wrests us apart, in our various belongings to one another. In the mostly prose poems that make up this collection, language and thought careen until they reach their limits, and then begin again, leaving resonant silences in the interstices. Through poems that carefully attend to language and resist easy closure, the collection testifies to the paradox that renewal cannot be willed, or simply waited for, but must arrive through devotion to the pilgrimage itself and with “eyes unstitched.”

Parlor Press's poetry series, Free Verse Editions, is pleased to announce the fifth annual New Measure Poetry Prize, which will carry a cash award of $1,000 and publication of an original, unpublished manuscript of poems. Up to four other manuscripts may be accepted for publication by Free Verse Editions editors. Submit a manuscript of at least 54 pages with a $25 entry fee between May 1 and June 30, 2013. Entries must be submitted electronically via Submittable: [active 1 May 2013 through 30 June 2013]. The judge for 2013 will be Carolyn Forché.


Jon Thompson, Free Verse Editions Series Editor

David Blakesley, Publisher, Parlor Press; 765.409.2649

Parlor Press

Free Verse
A Journal of Contemporary Poetry & Poetics

Carolyn Guinzio Featured on Poetry Daily

Carolyn Guinzio, author of Spine (2016) and Quarry (2008), was the featured poet on Poetry Daily, 20 March 2016. Congratulations, Carolyn!

Christy Desmet reviews Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare, edited by Scott L. Newstok

Cover of Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare"To conclude, I would like to offer a word of praise for the press. In an age when commercial presses are seeking out smaller manuscripts, Parlor Press is willing to publish a longer compilation of criticism such as this one. At the same time, there is no 'fluff'; the book is tight and—a tribute to both editor and press--cleanly edited. Not least important, the paper is of good quality, the typeface handsome, and the binding solid. My copy traveled by plane, train, and automobile across the Atlantic and suffered the usual indignities of academics' paperbacks, including the use of pens and pencils as bookmarks, all without significant wear. These production values, in combination with Kenneth Burke's quirky mind and Scott Newstok's judicious editing, make Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare an aesthetically pleasing as well as edifying read." (11/2007)

—Christy Desmet, The Upstart Crow 26 (2007): 124-28

Read more about Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare at the book's Web page.


Congratulations to Asao Inoue!

Asao Inoue's book, Antiracist Writing Assessment Ecologies: Teaching and Assessing Writing for a Socially Just Future has now won the CCCC Outstanding Book Award (March, 2017) and the Council of Writing Program Administrators' Best Book Award (July, 2017). Inoue's book was co-published by the WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press in 2015.

Asao Inoue accepts the Outstanding Book Award at CCCC in
Portland, Oregon in March 2017.

Asao Inoue accepts the Outstanding Book Award at
the Council of Writing Program Administrors Conference
in Knoxville, Tennessee, in July 2017.

Emily Carr's 13 ways of happily makes "Top 11 Poetry Books of 2011"

Rob McLennan chooses Emily Carr's 13 ways of happily for his "Top 11 (Canadian) Poetry Books of 2011:

13 ways of happily was selected in 2010 for the New Measure Poetry Prize in the Free Verse Editions series.

Congratulations, Emily!

Eric Pankey Featured on Poetry Daily

Eric Pankey, author of Dismantling the Angel, was the featured poet on Poetry Daily, 24 August 2014. Congratulations, Eric!

New Measure Poetry Prize and Free Verse Editions Press Release 2011

Read or download the press release for the 2010 Winner of the New Measure Poetry Prize and Free Verse Editions to be published in 2011. FreeVerse Press Release 2011

Parlor Press Book Receives Award from CWPA

For immediate release . . .

The WPA Outcomes Statement—A Decade Later, edited by Nicholas N. Behm, Gregory R. Glau, Deborah H. Holdstein, Duane Roen, and Edward M. White, received the Best Book Award from the Council of Writing Program Administrators at its annual conference on July 17, 2015 in Boise, Idaho. The annual award honors the book that addresses issues of long-term interest to WPAs, makes a significant contribution to the scholarship of writing program administration, and serves as a strong representative of the best work in the field. This year's award recognized books published in 2013. In making its announcement, the award committee had this to say:

The WPA Outcomes Statement is a living document, and this edited collection reflects how the Outcomes Statement is adapted in different environments in response to different challenges. This edited collection explores several ways in which the WPA Outcomes have been used to develop curriculum and enact change at many levels. Because of the breadth and depth of the contributions, this book will be a useful resource for years to come. It's not only a retrospective, but a forward-looking work that provides ideas for institutions at all levels.

Co-editors Nicholas N. Behm and Duane Roen were on hand to receive the award. Gregory R. Glau, a professional photographer and co-editor, supplied the image for the book's cover.

The award marks the second consecutive year that a Parlor Press book received the award. In 2014 the award went to GenAdmin: Theorizing WPA Identities in the Twenty-First Century by Colin Charlton, Jonikka Charlton, Tarez Samra Graban, Kathleen J. Ryan, and Amy Ferdinandt Stolley.

For additional information, contact David Blakesley at Parlor Press.

Winner of the New Measure Poetry Prize 2009

Emily Carr, 13 Ways of Happily

“If ostranenie—‘to make strange’—is the mandate of contemporary poetry, Emily Carr has achieved this both brilliantly and beautifully. Kaleidoscopic in its glimmering slivers, the life she brings us is built of charged familiars slightly and completely changed: the sun turns on its stem; the stallion rolls in a pasture of blue ether. Although she references poetic antecedents from Wallace Stevens and William Carlos Williams to Joan Retallack and Mary Ruefle, it’s not their voices, but their facility for invention, itself here reinvented, that keeps waking us up into a world sometimes alarming, often unsettling, and always careening until we, too, arrive ‘delirious & shredded, sailing sideways through the greenly ravished vowels.’”

—Cole Swensen

Free Verse Editions Press Release for 2007

December 3, 2006
Parlor Press and Free Verse: A Journal of Contemporary Poetry & Poetics

Parlor Press is pleased to announce the new selections for its Free Verse Editions series. The books will be published in the fall of 2007. Contact: Jon Thompson (, Series Editor. or David Blakesley (; 765.409.2649)

Free Verse Editions Press Release 2007 on Scribd Publish at Scribd or explore others: Poetry Literature

Kevin Killian on Puppet Wardrobe by Daniel Tiffany

Cover of Puppet Wardrobe"It would be hard to summarize my views of Daniel Tiffany's book PUPPET WARDROBE without resorting to hyperbole. We all know there are dozens of undeservedly neglected poetry books arriving every year, but the mystery that surrounds this one is like that of the Mary Celeste, ominous and thick with Stygian gloom of the high seas. Tiffany should be a household name and not just for silver or breakfast! They should be carrying him on their shoulders when they win the Rose Bowl. You see, I'm at it already." —Kevin Killian (Amazon Top 100 Reviewer) at (10/2007).

Read more about Puppet Wardrobe and Free Verse Editions.





Parlor Press Book Wins WPA Best Book Award for 2004-2005

Historical Studies of Writing Program Administration: Individuals, Communities, and the Formation of a Discipline, edited by Barbara L’Eplattenier and Lisa Mastrangelo (Parlor Press, 2004) has been selected for the Council of Writing Program Administrator’s Best Book Award for 2004-2005. The book is in the Lauer Series in Rhetoric and Composition, edited by Patricia Sullivan and Catherine Hobbs.

WPA Book Award 2004-2005 on Scribd Publish at Scribd or explore other Parlor Press Scribd documents

Free Verse Editions Press Release for 2006

December 3, 2005
Free Verse Editions
Contact: Jon Thompson (, Series Editor or David Blakesley (; 765.409.2649)
Parlor Press and Free Verse: A Journal of Contemporary Poetry & Poetics

Parlor Press is pleased to announce the new selections for its Free Verse Editions series. The books will be published in the fall of 2006. They are:

Adam Clay, The Wash

Rich in river imagery, and filled with the sense of the passage of time, The Wash explores the incessant music that permeates journeys with destinations unknown. Interweaving the voices of John Clare, Audubon, Roethke, and others, the poems depict a landscape of loss in which language and images provide the only concrete platform on which to stand. Ending with an elegy for the self-portrait and an acceptance of the inevitability of decay, the speaker discovers "the stillness of frames both comforts and terrifies." Playing a lyrical voice against the limits of silence, The Wash uncovers the voices that can be made, and heard, both in and out of nature.

Thomas Lisk, These Beautiful Limits

The poems in These Beautiful Limits delight in the transparency—and the obliquity—of language. Invested with a “jocoserious” sensibility, they explore the borders of language to see the ways in which language defines identity—not merely the language of meditation and philosophical inquiry, but also the quotidian language of everyday life that hovers on the edge of forgetfulness. The collection, which culminates in a long poem, “Hemp Quoits,” takes as its premise the assumption that the borders of identity are permeable with all the languages the self encounters on a daily basis. These poems value mobility and freedom, yet they recognize that we transact our affairs within borders: the body, the mind, the poem, the sentence, the phrase, the word, and that voyages of being are inevitably processes of discovery: “As long as what you write is in your hand/and my name is nowhere affixed,/ any connection will be conjectural…”

Lisk’s collection finds an aesthetics that comes with this risk taking with language, one that is affiliated with some of the experimental traditions of twentieth-century American poetry, but not simply reducible to them. Rather than talking about the world, These Beautiful Limits listens to it, and discovers in that attentiveness, paradoxes of time, history and desire that are both comical and elegiac.

Nicolas Pesques, Physis (translated by Cole Swensen)

For over 25 years, Nicolas Pesques has been writing a homage to St. Julien, the mountain he sees out his window. In this, the fifth book of the series, he weaves philosophical reflection in and out of an encounter with the body of the mountain, the body of language, and the human body that bridges the two. The spare, precise phrasing of Physis underscores the distance on which all landscape is based, seeking to understand how humans work to make a home here on earth.

Daniel Tiffany, Puppet Wardrobe

Puppet Wardrobe is a pop-up book, surprise is in its element. In search of the “dateless lively heat” that Shakespeare sourced to Cupid, Daniel Tiffany mounts a Jarmanesque masque of punk pageantry and finds “the infamous promiscuity of things” in broad display. Here is delight in “making up”: these poems are trannies, the mind of each earning its costume through misdirection and imposture, enabling fictions that reconcile the cosmetic and the cosmic noise all in a fit. The poet may wear his “wide-awake hat,” but let him blush. It’s just a thank you to Vertigo, whose party’s not yet finished.

As watchword, you have Tiffany’s “slang for the pink redoubt,” the chummy vulgarity beneath prosody’s underthings, so where the sense is lost, canonical Paradise was unfounded anyway: say hello to the New Flesh.

For more about Free Verse Editions and the annual competition, visit the website:

David Blakesley: 765.746.0175 (Parlor Press); 765.4949.3772 (Department of English) ( Mailing Address: Department of English, 500 Oval Drive, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47906; Fax: 206.600.5076 (ATTN: David Blakesley)

Parlor Press on the Web:
Free Verse:

About Parlor Press

Parlor Press LLC is an independent publisher and distributor of scholarly and trade books in high quality print and digital formats. It was founded in 2002 to address the need for an alternative scholarly, academic press attentive to emergent ideas and forms while maintaining the highest possible standards of quality, credibility, and integrity. The Press's primary goal is to publish outstanding writing in a variety of subjects. Because the Press is unencumbered by the bureaucratic machinery of older publishing entities, the stress can be more on excellence and innovation than on marketability or pedigree. (This is not to suggest that these categories are mutually exclusive in every case.)

The Press is managed by scholars and specialists in their respective fields, presently covering fifteen book series, from initial peer review through production, distribution, and marketing. There are presently over 400 Parlor Press authors and another 75 developing new book projects. Parlor Press books have won numerous national awards as the best books in their respective fields. We have plans for growth into new areas, such as multimedia writing and other hybrid forms of print, visual, aural, and haptic media that can take advantage of new digital printing, publishing, and dissemination technologies.

Subject Areas

Parlor Press benefits from sharp reviewers across the disciplines who have been chosen because of their expertise, experience, and willingness to consider innovative work in these representative areas (in alphabetical order):

Parlor Press Series

We consider new work well suited to one of our series themes:

Aesthetic Critical Inquiry
Edited by Andrea Feeser

Free Verse Editions
Edited by Jon Thompson

Lauer Series in Rhetoric and Composition
Edited by Patricia Sullivan,Catherine Hobbs, Thomas Rickert, and Jennifer Bay

Lenses on Composition Studies
Edited by Sheryl Fontaine and Steve Westbrook

Glassbead Books
Edited by John Holbo

New Media Theory
Edited by Byron Hawk

Perspectives on Writing
Parlor Press and the WAC Clearinghouse, edited by Susan McLeod

Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition
WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press, edited by Charles Bazerman

The Renaissance
Edited by Charles Ross

Rhetoric of Science and Technology << New
Edited by Alan Gross

Second Language Writing
Edited by Paul Kei Matsuda

Visual Rhetoric and Prospects in Visual Rhetoric
Edited by Marguerite Helmers

Writing Program Administration << New
Edited by Susan H. McLeod and Margot Soven

Writing Travel
Edited by Jeanne Moskal

Reprint Opportunities

One goal of Parlor Press is to republish in new editions or formats previously published work that has proven (unquestionably) to be a valuable resource for readers, writers, teachers, and scholars. Authors whose works have gone out of print and who retain the copyright to the work should contact the editor ( Such works may be candidates for republication, subject to further review and/or revision. In some cases, a reasonable subvention may be required.

Academic Publishing

If you would like to read more about the publishing scene to which Parlor Press responds, you might find these items worth reading:

The Publisher

The founder and publisher of Parlor Press is David Blakesley, who is also the Campbell Chair in Technical Communication and Professor of English at Clemson University. His work as an editor and publisher includes The Writing Instructor, Rhetorical Philosophy and Theory (Southern Illinois University Press; series editor and founder), WPA: Writing Program Administration (production editor), and Pacific Review (managing editor). He has authored or edited five books: The Elements of Dramatism (2002; Longman), The Terministic Screen: Rhetorical Perspectives on Film (2003; Southern Illinois University Press; editor), Late Poems, 1968-1993 (2007; by Kenneth Burke; edited with Julie Whitaker), and Writing: A Manual for the Digital Age (2008, 2009; with Jeff Hoogeveen). His other research includes articles and hypertexts on writing, visual rhetoric, film, technology, and Kenneth Burke.